Why doesn't my Hard Drive, USB Drive, or Memory Card show the full amount of memory?

Hard drive manufacturers define 1 gigabyte as exactly 1,000,000,000 bytes. By their definition, a 45GB hard drive is exactly 45,000,000,000 bytes. The true definition of 1 gigabyte is actually 1,073,741,824 bytes:
1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte
1024 kilobytes = 1 megabyte
1024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte
To obtain the true size in gigabytes of a 45GB hard drive you must divide the manufacturer's size in bytes by the number of bytes in a gigabyte:
45,000,000,000/1,073,741,824 = 41.9
As such, the actual reported size in gigabytes will always be smaller than the manufacturer's advertised size.

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